I used a double layer of the thickest batting I could find for this. Winter is cold and I wanted to provide as much protection from the cement floor of the kennel. This is hand tied with embroidery floss and the binding is double stitched. Round one is a zigzag stitch; after that I go over it again with a straight stitch. I want the pads to last through many washings. Most of the pads I make go home with the dog.